There are a number of heaters available for testing material samples under vacuum conditions.

Type HM reaches temperatures of up to 1000 o C with metallic resistance filaments, eg of tantalum. This is available for substrate sizes of 1 to 4 inches. Measured with thermocouple type K.

For oxidizing atmosphere we offer a heater made of ceramic, type HK , which is also suitable for 1000 o C. It is very durable, can be operated 2000 hours continuously. Its properties are fast heating and low deformation of the bearing surface. Measurements are also made with thermocouple type K. Sizes from 1 to 4 inches.

Type HE works with electron beam heating, tungsten or iridium filament in the range of 0 to 1000V. Temperature of 2500 o C can be reached. Measured with thermocouple type K. The substrate size is 1 inch.